Roman God Name Evolution

© 1995-2001 Untangle Incorporated
Last Updated: Wednesday, March 14, 2001

He is missing the really big ones like Jupiter or Juno but he mentions a lot of the other ones, and some like the very odd ones such as those the Senate raised to divinity for political purposes, and those the by emperors set, like Tiberius because they were ego maniacs easily self deluding.
In any event as usual you can check out which god did what or all the gods on this page

The Major Categories:

Applies To Function Name Gender
Agriculture N/A Dea Dia Female
Agriculture Assures the watering of the crops Nympha Female
Cattle N/A Bubona Female
Cattle Protector of Cattle, and a fertility god, husband to Fauna Faustitas Female
Crops Birth and death. Very ancient god of farming; personfiied earth god Tellus Female
Crops Wife of Faunus;night festival in May; women only; mystery rites fun and feasting Fauna or Fatua Female
Field work Oversees soil removal (runcation) Runcina Female
Field Work preparing soil Vervactor Male
Field work sowing Redarator Male
Field work weeding Insitor Male
Flowering wheat N/A Matura Female
Growing wheat N/A Lacturna Female
Harrowing N/A Occator Male
Harvest Very popular goddess; shared the December Saturnalia with Saturn wherein roles were reversed and masters served slaves for a day Ops Female
Herds Sometimes a male entity named Palilia which was also his festival in April celebrated Rome's founding Pales Female
Hoeing and Weeding N/A Sarritor Male
Manure N/A Sterculius Male
Protection against wheat mildew; Sacrificed to annually in April to spare the crops Robigo Male
Protection against wheat mildew; wife of Robigo Robiga Female
Protection harvested wheat; Very important god; connected to horses and mules; underground chapel in Rome; cult partner of Female Ops; Consualia festival in August featured mule races Consus Male
Protection stored grain Tutilina Female
Protection the nodes of the stems on wheat plants Nodotus Male
Protection the seed in the ground Seia Male
Protection the sheaves Volutina Female
Protection the shoots Patelana Female
Protection the stems Hostilina Female
Straw N/A Segetia Female

Decred by Senate or Emperor
Applies By Function Name Gender
Senate Octavius, adopted nephew of Julius Caeser, and head of the army (which gave him the title of respect, Imperatur, which eventually was the title for all the rulers: emperor). Augustus Male
Claudius He felt he was a god, so he decreed it Claudius Male
Titus Titus was a childhood friend of Britannicus Britannicus Male
Senate He asked them nicely. Vespasian Male
Titus He liked making gods. Titus Male
Titus Daughter of Titus. Julia Female
Domitian Daughter of Domitian Domitilla Female
Domitian Son died in infancy. (un-named) Male
Senate His Story Nerva Male
Senate Trajan was first a military commander, who supported Nerva. Then the senate wisely decided to support Trajan. Trajan Male
Senate This was a very competent ruler. The senate was in the habit of deifying the emperor who just died, so they did it to this one. Here is his story Antonius Pius Male
Senate A military ruler again ('The Hadrian Wall' he had built to keep the dangerous Picts from coming south into what is now England). Hadrian Male
Senate A famous emperor indeed. Marcus Aurelius Male
Senate Read his story here. In Latin if you can. Lucius Verus Male
Commodus He was convinced he was decendent of Hercules. Commodus Male
Senate Very popular, although he only reigned a year or less. Pertinax Male
Senate He loved the legions, and they loved him. Septimius Severus Male
Senate The senate just did this pro-forma now. He died a child. Gordian III Male
Senate He was yet another emperor who the senate deified. Philip the Arab Male
Senate Another emperor automatically deified. Trajanus Decius Male
Senate Son of Trajanus Decius Herennius Etruscus Male
Senate Follow the link. Claudius II Gothicus Male
Senate Aurelian instituted the Cult of the All-Conquering Sun Aurelian Male
Senate Probus Probus Male
Senate Carinus Carinus Male
Senate Numerian Numerian Male

Children and Childbirth
Applies To Function Name Gender
Aids in Childbirth N/A Opigena Female
Aids in Childbirth Rival of Juno Natio Female
Aids in Childbirth N/A Lucina Female
Aids in Childbirth Fertility goddess, wife of Faustitas. Fauna Female
Aids in Childbirth Deified Hippolytus; depicted as an old man Virbius Male
Assures the crying of the newborn N/A Vaticanus Male
Baby food N/A Educa Female
Breast feeding N/A Rumina Female
Brings forth the birth N/A Diespiter Male
Childrení medicine N/A Potina Female
Determined proper date of birth One of the Fates Nona Female
Gives life to the fetus N/A Vitumnus Male
Gives sensation to the fetus N/A Sentinus Male
Guardian of the cradle N/A Cunina Female
Hardened the bones of the infant N/A Ossipaga Female
Helps the newborn to walk N/A Statulinus Male
The hope that the newborn brings N/A Venilia Female
Labor N/A Lucina Female
Naming of the infant Nine days after birth for boys, eight for girls, asperged with water like a Christian baptism Nondina Female
Orphans N/A Orbona Female
Predicted future of newborns N/A Carmentis or Carmenta Female
Prophecies in verse a Camena presided over delivery and placed the binder Partula Female
Promises strong children protects married women Curitis Female
Protectors of infants and pregnant women Brothers Picumnus and Pilumnus Male
Protectors of infants and pregnant women Allies of Picumnus and Pilumnus Intercedona and Deverra Female
Protects infants and birthing mothers from Sylvanus Generally, a god of averting Averruncus Female
Protects the child when lifted up "Light",sees that the father accepts the new child Levana Female
Taught child to speak N/A Locutius Male
Terror of the child N/A Paventia Female

Virtues and Personifications
Type Function Name Gender
Personification Fair Dealing Aequitas Male
Personification Eternity Aeternitas Male
Personification Repetition of the Year Annona (Anna Perenna) Female
Virtue Harmony and Peace Concordia Female
Personification Good Luck and Happiness Felicitas Female
Personification and Virtue Good Faith, Honesty and Oaths Fides Male
Personfication Honor Honos Male
Personification Justice Justitia Female
Personification Protector of Soldiers Lars Militaris Male
Personification Freedom and Constitutional Government Libertas Female
Virtue Generosity Liberalitas Male
Personification Menustration Mena Female
Personfication Peace (Augustus formalized her status) Pax Female
Virtue Forethought Providentia Female
Personification Sleep Somnus Male
Personification Security Securitas Female
Personification Hope Spes Female
Personification Victory Victoria Female
Personification Manly courage and military prowess Virtus Male

Imported Gods
Country Function Name Gender
African Goodness Orphelus Male
African Tutelary god of Thugga Berbers in Africa Frugifer Male
Egyptian Serpent god credited with the founding of Alexandria Agathodaimon-Aion Male
Estruscan Equates to Apollo (Greek) Apulu Male
Estruscan Equates to Diana Artames Female
Estrucan Equated to Bacchus Fufluns Male
Estrucan Minerva Menarva Female
Estruscan Healing Nortia Female
Estruscan Divination Tages Male
Estruscan Equated to Jupiter Tinia Male
Estruscan Equated to Venus Turan Female
Estruscan Equated to Mercury Turms Male
Greek Commerce:Weights and Measures; Latinized names of Greek Kastor and Polydeukes Castor and Pollux Male
Illyrian Healing Reitia Female
Illyrian Companion to Bacchus ( a drinking buddy) Louzera Male
Illyrian Water of the ocean Messapos Male
Middle East Fertility - castrated companion of the Fertility goddess Cybele Attis Male
Minturnia Minturnian goddess who aided Marius; mother of Latinus by Faunus Marica Female
Punic Equated to Saturn Baal Male
Punic Equated to Juno or Ceres Tanit (also called Caelistis) Female
Punic Equated to Bacchus/Liber Pater Shadrach Male
Punic Equated to Hercules Melqart Male
Punic Equated to Aesculapius Eshmoun Male
Punic Equated to Mercury Malagbel Male

Applies To Comment Name Gender
Forests Equated to Greek Satyrs Fauns Male
Between Gods and Men General term for fauns, camenae, and centaurs Semones Male and Female
Crossroads Eventually taken over by Janus Lares Compitales Male
Men Essense of maleness greatness Genius Male
Female Essense of female greatness. Juno Female
Class of Gods A collection of gods like Uranus, Genius, Sol... Dii Selecti Male and Female
Ancestors and Traditions of the Household Also caused psychiatric disorders; a general term for spirits Lares (singular Lar) Male
Guardians of material prosperity of family Included all the members of a household Penates Male and Female
Dead and improperly buried Propriated during the Lemuria festival in May Lemures Male and Female
Spirits of the dead properly buried Festival in February Manes Male and Female
Water Nymphs Usually associated with prophecy as well. Camena Female
Winds and Storms N/A Tempestates Male and Female

Original Gods
Applies To Function Name Gender
Abundance N/A Copia Female
Abundance N/A Porus Male
Abundance N/A Volumnus Male
Action N/A Agenor Male
Aids in hard labor and healing Old Sabine goddess; temple on the Via Sacra; also oversees distribution of new year gift's Strenia Female
Aids the weary N/A Fessonia Female
Boundaries Very old and important deity; festival Terminalia was in February; landowners sacrificed at the boundary stones of their property Terminus Male
Civic Protecting Imperial Palaces; related to Pales Palatua Female
Civic Welfare of the status Salus Female
Communications/doors/habours Appears in the Aeneid Portunus Male
Council/Good Advice N/A Consus Male
Death N/A Tarpeia Female
Death Funerals Larenta Female
Death Funerals, the temples registered the dead Labertina Female
Death Funerals especially for the aged. Naenia Female
Death Power over Life and Death Genita-Mana Female
Discord Modified in the aristocrat level by the Greeks story of Ate (discord) Discordia Female
Disease The latin name means: wormy Verminus Male
Disease The latin word means fever Febris Female
Disease Stenches that cause disease; swamps and stagnant waters Mefitis Female
Disease the itches Scabies Female
Doors; beginnings and endings Janus took over the functions of Portinus or Terminus Janus Male
Emotion Dispells mental turmoil Volupia Female
Emotions terror; Child of Mars Pavor Female
Emotion Family harmony; family counselling occured in her temples Verplaca Female
Emotion Fear Pallor Female
Emotion Inspiration Stimula Female
Excrement Ministered by vestals Caca Female
Fertility Old Sabine goddess Nerio Female
Flowers Gave magic flower to Juno so she could conceive Mars without a father; joyful Florella in March wherein there were theater, games Flora Female
Food N/A Edesia Female
Food Apples; Entire month of September was sacred to her; festival participants decked out in flowers Pomona Female
Food Baking; "Oven"; festival of the Fornacalia celebrated in February; also call the "Festival of the Stupid" Fornax Female
Food Beverages Bibesia Female
Food Abundent Fruit Frutesca Female
Food Honey Mellona Female
Food Grindstone:Daughter of Mars; Worshipped by millers Molea Female
Fraud and Deception A young woman with hidden deformation and a snake's body for her lower half. Fraus Female
Healing/Immortality A diefied mortal Princess Tanaquil. Caia Caecilia Female
Healing She restored health; her sister Hygenia maintained it. Meditrina Female
Healing Minerva was the Roman equivalent of the Greek Athena. Minerva Medica Female
Healing She was the sister of Circe and Medea. There was a sacred grove on Lake Fuscinus where both poisonous snakes and medicinal herbs were found. Her healing was for poisons taken by the ill person. Angitia Female
Healing Tutelary goddess of healing in the town of Oriculum of Umbria a province of Rome. Valentia Female
Healing Another local god in Umbria. This was a river god, a prophetic healer with the waters of the river having healing properties themselves. Clitumnus Male
Highway Bandits Everyone needs a god. Her festival was at the end of the current month of June. Furrina Female
Home She was originally a nymph and virgin hunter. She would send would be suitors into a cave, and then she would take off. However when Janus wooed her he chased after her and caught her. He knew she was running off since he faced in both direction, forward and back and the same time. He made her a goddess of hinges on doors and window shutters in the home. Cluerca or Carda Female
Home Goddess of lintels used as a staple in homes. Limentinus Male
Home This was a god who specialized in thresholds of households. The crossing point from outside to inside was considered very important to the Romans. Forculus Male
Home She was the goddess responsible for weaving. Lina Female
Horses Very ancient goddess of the Celts. The Romans seemed to have assimulated her via the German calvary troops which became a major part of their armies after the 2nd century A.D. Epona Female
Industry and Silence She was another ancient goddess. Agenoria Female
Kindness Borrowed from Estrucea where this god represented the benevolence of the state Voltumna Female
Landscape This god is only mentioned by Arbonius. Nemestrinus Male
Landscape Hills and Downs Collatina Female
Landscape An ancient god of the woods and forests which could nasty or kindly in a capracious way. Sylvanus Male
Landscape An ancient god of the aboreal forests. All who say him fell in love with him. Picus Male
Landscape An ancient god representing the earth in all its natural glory. Tellumo Male
Landscape Goddess of orchards and gardens; frees slaves, tames wild things. Feronia Female
Landscape Goddess responsible for landscaping the natural valleys in the coutnry side. Vallonia Female
Luck Effected a single event not the course of a whole life as in destiny. Bonus Eventus Male
Marriage And mountain ridges too, although there is no clear connection between them. Jugatinus Male
Marriage The god which helps the groom bring the bride into the marriage house. Domitius or Domidius Male
Marriage Goddess responsible for courtship leading to marriage. Juga Female
Marriage The god which helps the groom bring the bride into the marriage house. Domitius or Domidius Male
Marriage Goddess of the honeymoon, officially loosens the girdle to indicate a matron no longer just an unmarried girl. Cinxia Female
Marriage Goddess ensuring longevity of the marriage. Manturnea Female
Marriage The god which develops mutual love and tenderness between the couple. Anteros Male
Mediation The god which mediated between gods and humans; proscribed the rituals for spiritual and purifiying but in execution were savage and ecstatic. Soranus Male
Money Goddess from which the English word pecunary derives. Pecunia Female
Money Metal coins was the purvey of this god. Aesculanus Male
Monster Three headed fire breathing monster killed by Hercules in dispute regarding some of Geryon's cattle Cacus Male
Monster Volsciian monster in Estrucean art shown as a demonic being with a wolf's head. Volta Male
Moon Goddess of the moon from far far back. Luna Female
Night Perhaps another name for Vespers or Nox Noctornus Male
Numbers Goddess from all human knowledge of arithmetic and math originated Numera Female
Nymph Known also as Postverta, she was the mother of Carmenae Carmenta Female
Nymph A Carmena. Egeria Female
Oaths Lots of other names but not much else. Fidius Dius, Sanctus,Saber, Semipater Male
Oaths An old Latin god, see Fides. Semo Sancus Male
Opening Goddess of opening roads and towns. Panda Female
Persuasion Gerald says no more. Suadela Female
Pleasure Beauty Hora Female
Pleasure Coitus Perfica Female
Pleasure Laziness Mercia Female
Pleasure Leisure and Respose, She had a festival in December. Vacuna Female
Pleasure Lust Libertina Female
Pleasure Night life. Comus Male
Pleasure Sensuality Voluptas Female
Prayer And that is all. Peta Female
Protection Goddess who protected ritual purified things; she was wife of Saturn. Lua Female
Protection Goddess who protected people from enemies by drving them away. Pellonia Female
Protection God protecting people from illness, black magic, evil, envy and demons Fascinus Male
Punishement Gerald doesn't say for what. Poena Female
Reputation Goddess of rumor, mixes truth and falsehood. Fama Female
Sewers Goddess of purifying physical things. Cloacina Female
Silence Goddess of silence. Muta Female
Singing N/A Camoena Female
Slaves Goddess of slavery who loved cats. Libertas Female
Stars Morning Stars Lucifer Female(and male!)
Thieves Goddess of deceit for thieves and imposters. Prayers were made to her to succeed at appearing honest. There was a sanctuary and alter to her on the Aventine hill in Rome. Laverna Female
Time Goddess of cyclical year. Anna Perenna Female
Time Goddess of the future. Antevorte Female
Time God representing the old year. The old man would be driven out of the New Year festival described in Anna Perenna. Mamuris or Venturis Male
Time Goddess of past time. Postvorta Female
Time God who controlled seasonal trade and produce.Husband of Pomona Vertumnus Male
Time Goddess of winter (implied silence and suffering) Angerona Female
Tolerance Goddess of tolerance and mercy Clementia Female
Time One of the goddess of childbirth, the dawn and protectors of ocean voyagers. Mater Mutata Female
Underworld One of the undeground gods. Vedoivis or Veiovis Male
Underworld Estrucan goddess of ghosts. Romans worshipped her with poppy heads and garlic. Mania Female
Underworld The goddess of the underworld who protected internal organs and exteriors of houses. Represented white magic. She protected the state, and a person from acting on evil or traitorous thoughts. At her June festival bacon and beans were consumed. The festival was to celebrate her deification by Janus after he raped her. Carna Female
Unknown The wife of Romulus who Juno deified when her husband was deified (as Quirinius). Hersilia Female
Unknown Roman hero with a temple in Rome. Nothing else is know about him. Falacer Male
Unknown Nothing is known about him except he was worshipped. Feretris Male
Unknown The goddess who may have either been the wolf who suckled Romulus and Remus; or a goddess fo prostitutes. Larenta (Acca Laurenta) Female
Virginity Gregory says nothing. Maybe he doesn't know but this is a Greek god. If any Roman's worshipped her they did as a foreign god. Daphne Female
Voice A disembodied voice which warned the Romans of impeding attacks by Celts, during the early years of the republic. There is a temple on the Via Nova Aius Locutius Female?
Voice The goddess who Picus loved, and after Circe in jealousy transformed him to a woodpecker she just faded away until there was nothing left. A sad Chesire cat? Canens Female
War Sister of Mars she had a whip and a spear. The spear she threw into enemy territory to start a war. Her priests offerred her their own blood in a temple which had no door. She is described having snakes instead of hair. Bellona Female
Water Neptune's wife. Neverita Female
Water A sulferous river; 'white', Verro calls her a sibyl prophetess a grove goddess living in a spring at Tibur. Abunea Female
Water The hot springs of Abona. Abonius Male
Water The ocean deeps wife of Neptune. Salacia Female
Water The ocean shallows another wife of Neptune. Vanelia Female
Water Goddess of springs. She had a festival in October called the Fontinalia after the summer heat has passed, and springs started to flow again. Fons Female
Water Goddess of springs who was a lover of Janus. Jaturnia Female
Water The god of the Tiber river. Voluternus (Tiberinus) Male
Weather Lightning Fulgora Female
Weather Nightime Thunderstorms Summanus Male
Women Menustration Fluonia Female
Women Protects Virginity Pertunda Female
Youth Young men of Rome Juventus Male

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